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Cellular Mobile Communication: A Comprehensive Guide by William C.Y. Lee - Free PDF Download


Cellular Mobile Communication By Lee Pdf Free 21




Cellular mobile communication is a technology that enables wireless voice and data transmission over a network of cells, each with a base station that communicates with mobile devices within its coverage area. Cellular mobile communication has revolutionized the telecommunication industry by providing ubiquitous connectivity, mobility, scalability, and affordability. Cellular mobile communication has also enabled many applications and services that enhance our personal, social, and professional lives.




Cellular Mobile Communication By Lee Pdf Free 21



One of the pioneers who developed wireless technology at Bell Labs was William C.Y. Lee, who is also known as the "Father of Cellular Technology". He has made significant contributions to the theory, design, implementation, and evaluation of cellular systems. He has also authored several books on wireless communications, including "Wireless and Cellular Communications", which is considered as one of the classic references in the field.


The book "Wireless and Cellular Communications" by William C.Y. Lee covers both voice and data services, Wi-Fi, 3G, WiMAX, 4G, 5G, 6G, IoT (Internet-of-things), M2M (Machine-to-machine), V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle), V2X (Vehicle-to-everything), AI (Artificial Intelligence), Blockchain etc., It provides an in-depth engineering guide for both students and professionals who want to learn about the principles, technologies, standards, architectures, protocols, algorithms, applications, challenges, opportunities, etc., related to wireless communications.


Cellular Systems




Cellular systems are based on the concept of dividing a large service area into smaller cells, each with a base station that communicates with mobile devices within its coverage area. By using different frequencies or codes for different cells, cellular systems can achieve frequency reuse, which means that the same frequency or code can be used by multiple cells that are sufficiently far apart to avoid interference. This way, cellular systems can increase the capacity of wireless communication, which is the number of users or channels that can be supported by a given bandwidth.


However, cellular systems also face some challenges, such as cochannel interference and handoff management. Cochannel interference occurs when signals from different cells that use the same frequency or code interfere with each other, causing degradation of signal quality and performance. Handoff management refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call from one cell to another when a mobile device moves across cell boundaries. Handoff management requires coordination between base stations and mobile devices to ensure seamless and reliable communication.


To overcome these challenges, cellular systems employ various techniques, such as cell splitting, sectoring, trunking, power control, diversity, channel assignment, handoff algorithms, etc. These techniques aim to optimize the use of resources, such as frequency, power, bandwidth, etc., and to improve the quality of service, such as coverage, reliability, security, etc., for cellular systems.


Analog Cellular Systems




Analog cellular systems are the first generation of cellular systems that use analog modulation and demodulation techniques to transmit and receive voice signals over radio waves. Analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), and phase modulation (PM), which vary the amplitude, frequency, or phase of a carrier wave according to the amplitude of the voice signal. Analog demodulation techniques include envelope detection, frequency discrimination, and phase-locked loop (PLL), which recover the voice signal from the modulated carrier wave.


Analog cellular systems have some advantages, such as simplicity, low cost, compatibility with existing radio equipment, etc. However, analog cellular systems also have some disadvantages, such as limited capacity, poor security, low quality, high interference, etc. For example, analog cellular systems can only support a few hundred channels per cell, which is not enough to meet the increasing demand for wireless communication. Moreover, analog cellular systems do not encrypt or compress voice signals, which makes them vulnerable to eavesdropping and noise.


Digital Cellular Systems




Digital cellular systems are the second generation of cellular systems that use digital encoding and compression techniques to convert voice signals into binary data streams and transmit them over radio waves using digital modulation and demodulation techniques. Digital encoding techniques include pulse code modulation (PCM), adaptive differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM), linear predictive coding (LPC), etc., which quantize and encode voice signals into binary bits. Digital compression techniques include source coding and channel coding, which reduce the redundancy and increase the robustness of binary data streams. Digital modulation techniques include amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK), phase shift keying (PSK), quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), etc., which map binary bits into symbols that represent changes in amplitude, frequency, or phase of a carrier wave. Digital demodulation techniques include coherent detection and non-coherent detection, which recover binary bits from the modulated carrier wave using synchronization and correlation methods.


Digital cellular systems have some advantages over analog cellular systems, such as higher capacity, better security, higher quality, lower interference, etc. For example, digital cellular systems can support thousands of channels per cell by using compression and multiplexing techniques that increase the efficiency of bandwidth utilization. Moreover, digital cellular systems can encrypt and compress voice and data signals, which makes them more secure and resilient to noise and fading.


Newly Mobile Systems




Newly mobile systems are the third generation and beyond of cellular systems that use advanced technologies and standards to support multimedia and broadband services over wireless networks. Multimedia services include voice, data, video, image, text, etc., that require high data rates and quality of service. Broadband services include high-speed internet access, streaming media, online gaming, video conferencing, etc., that require high bandwidth and low latency.


Newly mobile systems have some specifications and features that distinguish them from previous generations of cellular systems. Some of these specifications and features are:


  • Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA): A multiple access technique that uses spread spectrum technology to spread a narrowband signal over a wideband channel using a unique code for each user. WCDMA can support high data rates up to 2 Mbps and multiple services with different quality requirements.



  • High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA): An enhancement to WCDMA that increases the downlink data rate up to 14 Mbps by using adaptive modulation and coding, fast scheduling, and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) techniques.



  • High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA): An enhancement to WCDMA that increases the uplink data rate up to 5.76 Mbps by using similar techniques as HSDPA.



CDMA2000 Continuing the article: CDMA2000




CDMA2000 is a family of 3G mobile technology standards that use code division multiple access (CDMA) as the multiple access technique to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites. CDMA2000 is developed by 3GPP2 as a backwards-compatible successor to second-generation cdmaOne (IS-95) set of standards and used especially in North America and South Korea.


CDMA2000 includes several variants, such as CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO, and CDMA2000 1X Advanced. These variants differ in their data rates, features, and applications.


  • CDMA2000 1X (IS-2000) supports circuit-switched voice up to and beyond 35 simultaneous calls per sector and high-speed data of up to 153 kbps in both directions. It was recognized by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) as an IMT-2000 standard in November 1999.



  • CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (Evolution-Data Optimized) introduces new high-speed packet-switched transmission techniques that are specifically designed and optimized for a data-centric broadband network that can deliver peak data rates beyond 3 Mbps in a mobile environment. CDMA2000 EV-DO was approved as an IMT-2000 standard (cdma2000 High Rate packet Data Air Interface, IS-856) in 2001.



  • CDMA2000 1X Advanced (Rev.E) is the evolution of CDMA2000 1X. It provides up to four times the capacity and 70% more coverage compared to 1X by using advanced techniques such as interference cancellation, smart antennas, radio link enhancements, etc.



WLAN and WMAN Systems




WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) and WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Network) systems are wireless networks that provide wireless access to local and metropolitan areas, respectively. WLAN and WMAN systems use different technologies and standards to achieve different goals and requirements.


WLAN systems are based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which specify the physical layer and the medium access control layer of wireless networks. WLAN systems operate in the unlicensed frequency bands of 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz, and can support data rates up to several hundred Mbps depending on the standard version. WLAN systems are widely used for providing wireless connectivity to devices such as laptops, smartphones, tablets, etc., within a limited range of a few hundred meters.


WMAN systems are based on the IEEE 802.16 family of standards, also known as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), which specify the physical layer and the medium access control layer of wireless networks. WMAN systems operate in both licensed and unlicensed frequency bands ranging from 2 GHz to 66 GHz, and can support data rates up to several tens of Mbps depending on the frequency band and channel bandwidth. WMAN systems are used for providing wireless connectivity to devices such as fixed or mobile stations within a larger range of several kilometers.


Cell Coverage and Antennas




Cell coverage and antennas are important factors that affect the design and performance of cellular systems. Cell coverage refers to the area where a mobile device can communicate with a base station with acceptable signal quality and strength. Antennas refer to the devices that transmit and receive radio waves between mobile devices and base stations.


Cell coverage and antennas are influenced by various factors, such as frequency, power, propagation environment, interference, etc. For example, higher frequency signals have shorter wavelengths and higher attenuation than lower frequency signals, which means that they have smaller cell coverage and require more base stations to cover a given area. Higher power signals have longer range and better penetration than lower power signals, which means that they have larger cell coverage and require fewer base stations to cover a given area. However, higher power signals also cause more interference and consume more energy than lower power signals.


To optimize cell coverage and antennas for cellular systems, various techniques are used, such as cell splitting, sectoring, power control, diversity, beamforming, MIMO, etc. These techniques aim to increase the capacity, quality, and reliability of wireless communication by reducing interference, enhancing signal strength, and exploiting spatial diversity.


Switching and Traffic




Switching and traffic are two essential functions of cellular systems that enable efficient and reliable communication between mobile devices and base stations. Switching refers to the process of connecting and disconnecting calls between mobile devices and base stations, or between different base stations. Traffic refers to the amount and pattern of calls or data that are generated by mobile devices and base stations.


Switching and traffic are handled by different types of switching systems in cellular networks, such as circuit switching, packet switching, ATM switching, soft switching, etc. These switching systems differ in their architectures, protocols, functions, and performance. For example, circuit switching establishes a dedicated path between the source and destination for the duration of a call, which ensures constant bandwidth and low delay, but also wastes resources when there is no data to transmit. Packet switching divides the data into packets and sends them over a shared network, which improves resource utilization and flexibility, but also introduces variable bandwidth and delay.


To manage switching and traffic for cellular networks, various models and measures are used, such as Erlang B model, Erlang C model, Poisson distribution, blocking probability, grade of service, etc. These models and measures help to estimate the traffic load, the required number of channels, the probability of call loss or delay, the quality of service, etc., for cellular networks.


Data Links and Microwaves




Data links and microwaves are two important components of cellular systems that enable reliable and efficient transmission of information between mobile devices and base stations. Data links refer to the protocols and mechanisms that ensure the integrity, security, and efficiency of data transmission over wireless channels. Microwaves refer to the electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from 300 MHz to 300 GHz that are used for wireless communication.


Data links and microwaves play different roles in cellular systems. Data links are responsible for error detection and correction, flow control, congestion control, encryption, authentication, etc., that ensure reliable and secure data transmission over wireless channels. Microwaves are responsible for modulation and demodulation, multiplexing and demultiplexing, amplification, filtering, etc., that ensure efficient and high-quality data transmission over wireless channels.


To implement data links and microwaves for cellular systems, various protocols and techniques are used, such as HDLC, PPP, TCP/IP, CDMA, OFDM, QAM, FDM, TDM, FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA, etc. These protocols and techniques help to improve the performance, capacity, quality, and flexibility of wireless communication.


System Evaluations




System evaluations are the processes of assessing the performance, quality, cost, benefits, etc., of cellular systems. System evaluations help to compare different cellular technologies and standards, to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cellular systems, to optimize the design and operation of cellular systems, to forecast the future trends and directions of cellular systems, etc.


System evaluations use various criteria and methods to evaluate cellular systems. Some of these criteria are:


  • Capacity: The number of users or channels that can be supported by a given bandwidth or area.



  • Coverage: The area where a mobile device can communicate with a base station with acceptable signal quality and strength.



  • Quality: The degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of users or operators with respect to the performance or service of cellular systems.



  • Cost: The amount of money or resources required to build, operate, maintain, or upgrade cellular systems.



  • Benefit: The amount of value or advantage gained from using cellular systems.



Some of these methods are:


  • Simulation: The use of mathematical models or software tools to mimic the behavior or operation of cellular systems under various scenarios or conditions.



  • Measurement: The use of instruments or devices to collect or record the data or information related to the performance or operation of cellular systems.



  • Analysis: The use of mathematical or statistical techniques to process or interpret the data or information related to the performance or operation of cellular systems.



Continuing the article: Intelligent Cell Concept




The intelligent cell concept is a technique that aims to improve the performance and quality of cellular systems by using intelligent methods to monitor and control the power delivery and the processing gain of wireless signals. The intelligent cell concept can be applied to both microcells and macrocells to increase the capacity and coverage of cellular systems.


The intelligent cell concept has two definitions:


  • Power delivery intelligent cell: The cell is able to intelligently monitor where the mobile unit is and find a way to deliver confined power to that mobile unit. This way, the cell can reduce the interference with other cells and increase the frequency reuse.



  • Processing gain intelligent cell: The cell is able to use advanced techniques such as spread spectrum, coding, modulation, etc., to increase the processing gain of wireless signals. This way, the cell can make the signals co-exist comfortably and indestructibly with the interference in the cell.



The intelligent cell concept has some benefits, such as:


  • Increases capacity and improves performance of voice and data transmission.



  • Suited to personal communication services (PCS) since it requires vast capacity and high quality.



  • Reduces power consumption and radiation exposure for mobile devices and base stations.



Mobile Communications-Related Topics




Besides the topics discussed above, there are many other topics that are related to mobile communications, such as:


  • Mobile communication applications: The various services and functions that mobile communication enables, such as voice calls, text messages, multimedia messages, emails, web browsing, social networking, online gaming, video conferencing, etc.



  • Mobile communication security: The methods and mechanisms that protect mobile communication from unauthorized access, interception, modification, or disruption, such as encryption, authentication, digital signatures, firewalls, etc.



  • Mobile communication standards: The rules and specifications that define how mobile communication systems operate and interoperate, such as GSM, UMTS, LTE, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, etc.



  • Mobile communication devices: The equipment and gadgets that enable mobile communication, such as mobile phones, smartphones, tablets, laptops, PDAs, etc.



  • Mobile communication networks: The infrastructure and architecture that support mobile communication, such as base stations, switches, routers, gateways, servers, etc.



4G Perspectives




4G (Fourth Generation) is the next generation of cellular systems that aims to provide higher data rates, lower latency, wider coverage, better quality, and more services than 3G systems. 4G systems are expected to support multimedia and broadband services over wireless networks with peak data rates up to 100 Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps for low mobility.


4G systems are based on various technologies and standards that are still under development or deployment. Some of these technologies and standards are:


  • Long Term Evolution (LTE): A technology that enhances 3G systems by using orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), etc., to achieve higher data rates up to 300 Mbps downlink and 75 Mbps uplink.



Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A): A technology that further enhances LTE by usin


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